A cost-conscious U.S. Congress has denied funding
to Bush administration projects to develop new nuclear weapons designed to target
rogue states or terrorists developing weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Critics who said the new "bunker buster" weapons risked blurring
the lines between conventional and unconventional warfare hailed the move, which
was led by a member of President George W. Bush's Republican Party.
Over White House objections, members of both the House of Representatives
and the Senate decided against approving $27.6 million for the Robust Nuclear
Earth Penetrator ("bunker buster") designed to destroy command-and-control
facilities or WMD buried deep underground.
The proposed funding was part of the mammoth $388 billion government spending
bill approved Saturday.
Members of Congress also cut a suggested $9 million for what is called advanced-concepts
research on new weapons designs, a program that could have funded new, lower-yield
nuclear weapons – so-called "mini-nukes" – for use as tactical battlefield
Politicians also denied the administration $30 million it had requested to
shorten the lead-time needed to resume nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada
"This is the biggest victory that arms-control advocates in Congress
have had since 1992, when we were able to place limits on nuclear testing,"
said Massachusetts Rep. Edward Markey from the opposition Democratic Party.
"If we are to convince other countries to forgo nuclear weapons, we cannot
be preparing to build a whole new generation of nuclear weapons here in the
U.S," he added.
The decisions were also hailed by arms-control activists, who gave much of
the credit for the outcome to Republican Rep. David Hobson, the chairman of
the House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water
"This proves both how one person in a key position can make a major difference
and that opposition to new nuclear weapons extends across party lines,"
said John Isaacs, the director for the Council
for a Livable World (CLW), a grassroots organization that had lobbied against
the new weapons, in a statement.
Hobson himself warned the administration that it "should read this as
a clear signal from Congress" that any new effort to revive the funding
in 2005 "would get the same reaction."
The Bush government had made the new weapons a top priority beginning in 2002,
as an integral part of its "preemption" strategy to be employed against
terrorists and rogues states suspected of having or building WMD.
Advocates of them have long argued that nuclear weapons, if precisely targeted
and designed in a way that would limit their destructive impacts, could be used
effectively for conventional purposes, particularly in Bush's "war on terrorism."
They also contended that such weapons would help deter attacks ordered by
foreign leaders or terrorists who believed they could escape retaliation by
building hardened, underground shelters.
"The problem is the public – and the Congress reflects this – just doesn't
understand the role of nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War world," David
Smith, chief operating officer of the National Institute for Public Policy (NIPP),
a think tank that has long lobbied for developing more advanced nuclear weapons,
told the San Francisco Chronicle on Tuesday.
But opponents have argued that developing new nuclear weapons could spark
an arms race with other nuclear powers and make countries that have not yet
crossed the nuclear threshold more determined to acquire WMD and the ability
to deliver them.
In a speech last August, Hobson said he saw the administration's proposals,
particularly for the "bunker buster," the "mini-nukes" and
cutting the time needed to resume nuclear testing as "very provocative
and overly aggressive policies that undermine our moral authority to argue that
other nations should forgo nuclear weapons."
"We cannot advocate for nuclear non-proliferation around the globe and
pursue more usable nuclear weapons options at home," he added.
Daryl Kimball, director of the Washington-based Arms
Control Association (ACA), praised Hobson's "enormous courage"
in defying the White House. He said Congress' action showed "that not only
are Democrats convinced, but key Republicans are convinced we don't need new
nuclear weapons capabilities."
According to CLW's Isaacs, the politicians' rebuff to the administration was
aided by the growing concern over the unprecedented budget deficit piled up
under Bush, currently more than $400 billion annually, or roughly the same amount
as the defense budget.
In negotiating the omnibus spending bill, the House and Senate agreed that
budgets for all executive departments, except Defense and Homeland Security,
would be subject to strict ceilings for fiscal year (FY) 2005. The National
Nuclear Security Administration, which runs nuclear programs, is administered
by the Energy Department.
Congress also cut another administration request for $29.8 million to build
plutonium pits – or nuclear triggers – for new nuclear weapons to $7 million.
"This is not winning the war by a long shot," said California Sen.
Dianne Feinstein, one of the principal foes of the administration's proposed
nuclear programs. "But it is a consequential step that should send a very
loud message to the administration."
(Inter Press Service)