On Super Bowl Sunday, President Barack Obama
said most U.S. troops in Iraq would
be home in time to watch Super Bowl XLIV. Yet a day later he was conferring
with Secretary of Defense Robert Gates about plans for adding another 15,000
troops in Afghanistan (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael
Mullen believes as many as 30,000
additional troops are needed in Afghanistan). Although Obama has previously
of the surge strategy in Iraq, he seems to believe that a similar
course of action will be successful in Afghanistan:
"Obama and Biden will refocus American resources on the greatest
threat to our security – the resurgence of al-Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan
and Pakistan. They will increase our troop levels in Afghanistan, press our
allies in NATO to do the same, and dedicate more resources to revitalize Afghanistan's
First and foremost, the jury is still out – and will be for quite some time
– on whether the surge in Iraq has, in fact, been successful. According to
Cordesman, a Middle East and military expert at the Center for Strategic
and International Studies, "Iraq is very much a work in progress, and
one that will take at least several more years to achieve any meaningful stability."
For the moment, at least, the situation has improved. According to Iraq
"With only a few days of 2008 remaining, the year so far has seen
another 8,315-9,028 civilian deaths added to the IBC database. This compares
to 25,774-27,599 deaths reported in 2006, and 22,671-24,295 in 2007. This is
a substantial drop on the preceding two years: on a per-day rate, it represents
a reduction from 76 per day (2006) and 67 per day (2007) to 25 per day in 2008.
"The most notable reduction in violence has been in Baghdad. For the
first time since the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq began, fewer deaths have been
reported in the capital than in the rest of the country (from 54% of all deaths
in 2006-2007 to 32% in 2008)."
But (there's always a but):
"[A]reas outside Baghdad have seen far less dramatic reductions in
violence, and dozens of civilians are still being killed in conflict-related
violence throughout Iraq on a relentless, daily basis. At 25 per day, the 2008
rate for violent civilian deaths is equivalent to that existing throughout
the first 20 months of post-invasion Iraq, from May 2003 to December 2004 (15,355
deaths over 610 days)."
So things have gotten better in a relative sense but not necessarily in an
absolute sense. And the fact remains that nearly 100,000 civilians are estimated
to have been killed since the U.S. invasion in March 2003 (the Lancet
study estimates more than 650,000 Iraqis killed, and Opinion Research Business
puts the number at over
one million – both using polling to arrive at their estimates).
Moreover, a reduction in violence is only one metric to measure the efficacy
of the surge. Indeed, reducing violence is a means to an end, and a necessary
but not sufficient condition. The larger stated objective is political stability
and reconciliation. Iraq had provincial elections on the Saturday before the
Super Bowl, but the results are mixed. The biggest positive is that the elections
marred by violence. Sunnis participated in large numbers, in contrast to
their boycott of the 2005 elections. However, turnout was much lower than previous
Iraqi elections, perhaps signaling disenchantment with democracy on the Tigris
and Euphrates. Secular parties appear to have done better against religious
parties, probably because of a backlash against the latters' inability to provide
jobs, services, and utilities. But one of the most powerful Shi'ite blocs,
the Sadrist movement led by the cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, did not participate
in the provincial elections, so lack of results cannot be construed to mean
that Sadr (and his resistance to continued U.S. military occupation) is no
longer part of the political landscape – especially at the national level,
with elections later this year.
And it is important to remember that the ultimate test will be what happens
after U.S. forces have been withdrawn from Iraq. It is entirely possible that
everything could come undone once there is no longer an imperial presence and
Iraqis feel they are truly free to run their country as they see fit.
But even if we are willing to believe that the surge has worked in Iraq (at
least in reducing in the level of violence) – and that a similar strategy would
work in Afghanistan – we need to understand that the key to any success has
not been the deployment of more troops. Rather, the primary reason for reduced
violence is that we have bribed Shi'ite militias not to fight, which may work
in the short run, but does not bode well in the long run for Iraq. Ironically,
many of these are the same militias we previously armed to fight Sunni insurgents.
Such a strategy is not likely to work in Afghanistan. If a resurgent Taliban
is the threat, it's not likely that they can simply be bought off. It may be
necessary to include them in the political landscape of Afghanistan – something
Washington is reluctant to do since the Taliban and al-Qaeda are considered
one and the same (which
may no longer be the case).
There is also the issue of Afghanistan's opium poppy crop, which constitutes
a crucial part of the Afghan economy (about one-third of the country's GDP).
Although some of the money from drug trafficking in Afghanistan helps fund
al-Qaeda and the Taliban, the bulk of it is the only livelihood for many Afghans.
If we don't want that opium on the open market, the Iraq surge strategy would
suggest buying it. Yet America's war on drugs makes poppies an evil to be exterminated.
And pushing the Karzai regime to pursue such a strategy only makes the Kabul
government's position more precarious.
So the prospects for a surge in Afghanistan achieving even a modicum of success
are relatively dim. Afghanistan is not known as the graveyard of empires without
good reason. One thing, however, is certain. More boots on the ground means
more occupation. More occupation means more resentment of the United States
among Afghans and Muslims around the world. More resentment means more potential