WASHINGTON – In a direct challenge to recent assertions by both President
George W Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney, the special bipartisan commission
investigating the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against New York and the
Pentagon has found "no credible evidence" of any operational link between Iraq
While the commission, which has had access to highly classified U.S. intelligence,
said that al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden had sought contacts with and support
from former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein after his expulsion from Sudan in
1994, those appeals were ignored.
Contacts between Iraq and al-Qaeda after bin Laden moved to Afghanistan "do
not appear to have resulted in a collaborative relationship," according to the
commission's report, which was released Wednesday morning. It added that two
senior al-Qaeda officials now in U.S. custody "have adamantly denied that any
ties existed between al-Qaeda and Iraq."
The report is the first of a series expected to be released over the coming
months as the commission winds up its work.
Most of it deals with al-Qaeda's evolution beginning in the 1980s. Echoing
the administration, it warns that "al-Qaeda is actively striving to attack the
United States and inflict mass casualties."
Its conclusion about the absence of any operational link between al-Qaeda
and Saddam Hussein not only further undermines the administration's case for
going to war against Iraq, but also deals a sharp blow to the already-strained
credibility of Cheney, who Monday asserted without elaboration during a speech
to a right-wing institute in Florida that the Iraqi leader had "long-established
ties" to the group.
Cheney insisted as recently as last January that Washington had obtained "conclusive"
evidence that Hussein had biological weapons in the form of two customized truck
trailers that he said was for their production.
The claim, which he has not repeated since, was discredited by, among others,
outgoing Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Director George Tenet, as well as
the head of the U.S. task force in charge of searching for alleged weapons of
mass destruction (WMD) programs in Iraq, David Kay.
Asked about Cheney's most recent remarks at a Tuesday press conference, Bush
declined to answer directly, insisting instead that Hussein had ties with "terrorist
organizations," of which he cited only the late Abu Nidal, a Palestinian who
split from Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat in the 1970s and created his own
Bush also suggested that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a Jordanian who is identified
by U.S. officials as a leader of resistance to the U.S. occupation of Iraq,
might also have had ties to Hussein and al-Qaeda.
"Zarqawi is the best evidence of (Hussein's) connection to al-Qaeda affiliates
and al-Qaeda," Bush said. "He's the person who's still killing."
The commission's conclusion on the absence of ties between Hussein and al-Qaeda
is also certain to further discredit the so-called neoconservatives both inside
and outside the administration who led the march to war. Many of them were behind
what appeared to be an orchestrated campaign to implicate Hussein in the 9/11
Within the administration, the principals appear to have included Pentagon
chief Donald Rumsfeld, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Vice President
Dick Cheney and his national security adviser, I. Lewis Libby, among others
in key posts in the National Security Council (NSC) and the State Department.
Outside the administration, key figures included close friends of both Wolfowitz
and Rumsfeld, including Richard Perle, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
chief James Woolsey – both members of Rumsfeld's Defence Policy Board (DPB);
Frank Gaffney, head of the arms-industry-funded Centre for Security Policy;
and William Kristol, editor of the Rupert Murdoch-owned Weekly Standard
and chairman of the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), among others.
A close examination of the public record indicates that all of these individuals
were actively preparing the ground within days, even hours, after the 9/11 attacks
for an eventual strike on Iraq, whether or not it had any role in the attacks
or any connection to al-Qaeda.
A hint of a deliberate campaign to connect Iraq with 9/11 and al-Qaeda surfaced
one year ago in a televised interview of General Wesley Clark on the popular
public-affairs program, Meet the Press. In answer to a question, Clark
asserted, "there was a concerted effort during the fall of 2001, starting immediately
after 9/11, to pin 9/11 and the terrorism problem on Saddam Hussein."
"It came from the White House, it came from other people around the White
House. It came from all over. I got a call on 9/11. I was on CNN, and I got
a call at my home saying, 'you got to say this is connected. This is state-sponsored
terrorism. This has to be connected to Saddam Hussein.'"
While Clark has not yet identified who called him, Perle, Woolsey, Gaffney
and Kristol were using the same language in their media appearances on 9/11
and over the following weeks.
"This could not have been done without help of one or more governments," Perle
told The Washington Post on Sept. 11. "Someone taught these suicide bombers
how to fly large airplanes. I don't think that can be done without the assistance
of large governments."
While Kristol and company were trying to implicate Hussein in the public debate,
their friends in the administration were pushing hard in the same direction.
Cheney, according to published accounts, had already confided to friends before
Sept. 11 that he hoped the Bush administration would remove Hussein from power.
But the evidence about Rumsfeld is even more dramatic. According to an account
by veteran CBS newsman David Martin in September 2002, Rumsfeld was "telling
his aides to start thinking about striking Iraq, even though there was no evidence
linking Saddam Hussein to the attacks" five hours after an American Airlines
jet slammed into the Pentagon.
Martin attributed his account in part to notes taken at the time by a Rumsfeld
aide. They quote the defense chief asking for the "best info fast" to "judge
whether good enough to hit SH (Saddam Hussein) at the same time, not only UBL
(Usama bin Laden). The administration should "go massive ... sweep it all up,
things related and not," the notes quote Rumsfeld as saying.
Wolfowitz shared those views, according to an account of the meeting Sept.
15-16 of the administration's war council at Camp David, provided by the Post's
Bill Woodward and Dan Balz. In the "I-was-there" style for which Woodward, whose
access to powerful officials since his investigative role in the Watergate scandal
almost 30 years ago is unmatched, is famous:
"Wolfowitz argued (at the meeting) that the real source of all the trouble
and terrorism was probably Hussein. The terrorist attacks of Sep. 11 created
an opportunity to strike. Now, Rumsfeld asked again: 'Is this the time to attack
"Powell objected," the Woodward and Balz account continued, citing Secretary
of State Colin Powell's argument that U.S. allies would not support a strike
on Iraq. "If you get something pinning Sep. 11 on Iraq, great," Powell is quoted
as saying. "But let's get Afghanistan now. If we do that, we will have increased
our ability to go after Iraq – if we can prove Iraq had a role."
Despite the secretary of state's reservations, the neocon campaign was remarkably
successful. As recently as eight weeks ago, a survey by the Program on International
Policy Attitudes (PIPA) at the University of Maryland found that 57 percent
of the U.S. public believed Iraq was either "directly involved" in carrying
out the 9/11 attacks or had provided "substantial support" to al-Qaeda. Fifty-two
percent said they believed that concrete evidence of a Hussein-al-Qaeda link
had been uncovered by U.S. investigators since the war.
Retired senior U.S. diplomats and intelligence officials have long doubted
any operational link between al-Qaeda and Hussein, as noted by former U.S. Ambassador
to Saudi Arabia Chas Freeman, who signed a statement by former top-ranking diplomats
and military officials that was released here Tuesday, denouncing U.S. policy
in Iraq and the Middle East.
"(Hussein) and Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda were mortal enemies during this
period," Freeman told reporters, adding that administration assertions that
the two had such links before the war were regarded by specialists in the region
"Why the vice president continues to make that claim beats me," said another
former top diplomat, Ambassador Robert Oakley. "I have no idea."