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August 22, 2006

The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy


Endnotes (4)

by John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt

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84 Eric Alterman, "Intractable Foes, Warring Narratives," MSNBC.com, March 28, 2002.

85 Quoted in Bret Stephens, "Eye on the Media by Bret Stephens: Bartley’s Journal," Jerusalem Post, November 21, 2002.

86 Max Frankel, The Times of My Life And My Life with the Times (NY: Random House, 1999), pp. 401-403.

87 Felicity Barringer, "Some U.S. Backers of Israel Boycott Dailies Over Mideast Coverage That They Deplore," New York Times, May 23, 2002.

88 Barringer, "Some U.S. Backers"; Gaby Wenig, "NPR Israel Coverage Sparks Protests," The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, May 9, 2003; Gila Wertheimer, "NPR Dismisses Protest Rallies," Chicago Jewish Star, May 30 – June 12, 2003. Also see James D. Besser, "NPR Radio Wars Putting Jewish Groups in a Bind," Jewish Week, May 20, 2005; Samuel Freedman, "From ‘Balance’ to Censorship: Bush’s Cynical Plan for NPR," Forward, May 27, 2005; Nathan Guttman, "Enough Already from Those Pro-Israel Nudniks," Ha’aretz, February 1, 2005; E.J. Kessler, "Hot Seat Expected for New Chair of Corporation for Public Broadcasting," Forward, October 28, 2005.

89 Joel Beinin, "Money, Media and Policy Consensus: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy," Middle East Report, January-February 1993, pp. 10-15; Mark H. Milstein, "Washington Institute for Near East Policy: An AIPAC ‘Image Problem’," Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, July 1991.

90 Quoted in Milstein, "Washington Institute."

91 "Brookings Announces New Saban Center for Middle East Policy," Brookings Institution Press Release, May 9, 2002; Andrew Ross Sorkin, "Schlepping to Moguldom," New York Times, September 5, 2004.

92 James D. Besser, "Turning up Heat in Campus Wars," Jewish Week, July 25, 2003; Ronald S. Lauder and Jay Schottenstein, "Back to School for Israel Advocacy," Forward, November 14, 2003; Rachel Pomerance, "Israel Forces Winning Campus Battle, Say Students Attending AIPAC Meeting," JTA, December 31, 2002. Jewish groups are also targeting high schools. See Max Gross, "Israel Advocacy Coalition Targeting High Schools," Forward, January 23, 2004; "New Pro-Israel Campaign Targets High School Students," JTA, June 2, 2004.

93 Besser, "Turning up Heat." In 2002 and 2003, AIPAC brought 240 college students to Washington, DC for intensive advocacy training, sending them back to school to win over campus leaders to Israel’s cause. Besser, "Turning up Heat"; Pomerance, "Israel Forces Winning." In the spring of 2005, it hosted 100 student government presidents (80 of whom were not Jewish) at its annual conference. Nathaniel Popper, "Pro-Israel Groups: Campuses Improving," Forward, June 24, 2005.

94 Michael Dobbs, "Middle East Studies under Scrutiny in U.S.," Washington Post, January 13, 2004; Michele Goldberg, "Osama University?" Salon.com, November 6, 2003; Kristine McNeil, "The War on Academic Freedom," Nation, November 11, 2002; Zachary Lockman, "Behind the Battle over US Middle East Policy," Middle East Report Online, January 2004.

95 Jonathan R. Cole, "The Patriot Act on Campus: Defending the University Post--9/11," Boston Review, Summer 2003.

96 Chanakya Sethi, "Khalidi Candidacy for New Chair Draws Fire," Daily Princetonian, April 22, 2005; Idem, "Debate Grows over Khalidi Candidacy," Daily Princetonian, April 28, 2005.

97 Robert Gaines, "The Battle at Columbia University," Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, April 2005, pp. 56-57; Caroline Glick, "Our World: The Columbia Disaster," Jerusalem Post, April 4, 2005; Joseph Massad, "Witch Hunt at Columbia: Targeting the University," CounterPunch, June 3, 2005; Nathaniel Popper, "Columbia Students Say Firestorm Blurs Campus Reality," Forward, February 11, 2005; Scott Sherman, "The Mideast Comes to Columbia," Nation, April 4, 2005; Chanan Weissman, "Columbia Unbecoming," Jerusalem Post, February 6, 2005.

98 "Columbia University Ad Hoc Grievance Committee, Final Report, New York, 28 March 2005 (excerpts)," in Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Summer 2005), pp. 90-100.

99 Goldberg, "Osama University?"; Ron Kampeas, "Campus Oversight Passes Senate as Review Effort Scores a Victory," JTA, November 22, 2005; Stanley Kurtz, "Reforming the Campus: Congress Targets Title VI," National Review Online, October 14, 2003; McNeil, "War on Academic Freedom"; Ori Nir, "Groups Back Bill to Monitor Universities," Forward, March 12, 2004; Sara Roy, "Short Cuts," London Review of Books, April 1, 2004; Anders Strindberg, "The New Commissars," American Conservative, February 2, 2004.

100 The number 130 comes from Mitchell G. Bard, "Tenured or Tenuous: Defining the Role of Faculty in Supporting Israel on Campus," Report published by The Israel on Campus Coalition and The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, May 2004, p. 11. Also see Nacha Cattan, "NYU Center: New Addition to Growing Academic Field," Forward, May 2, 2003; Samuel G. Freedman, "Separating the Political Myths from the Facts in Israel Studies," New York Times, February 16, 2005; Jennifer Jacobson, "The Politics of Israel Studies," Chronicle of Higher Education, June 24, 2005, pp. 10-12; Michael C. Kotzin, "The Jewish Community and the Ivory Tower: An Urgent Need for Israel Studies," Forward, January 30, 2004; Nathaniel Popper, "Israel Studies Gain on Campus as Disputes Grow," Forward, March 25, 2005.

101 Quoted in Cattan, "NYU Center."

102 Jonathan Kessler, "Pro-Israel Activism Makes Comeback on Campus," Forward, December 26, 2003; Popper, "Campuses Improving"; Barry Silverman and Randall Kaplan, "Pro-Israel College Activists Quietly Successful on Campus," JTA, May 9, 2005; Chanan Tigay, "As Students Return to Campus, Activists Prepare a New Approach," JTA, September 1, 2005. Nevertheless, there are limits to the Lobby’s effectiveness on campuses. See Joe Eskenazi, "Book: College Campuses Quiet, but Anti-Israel Feeling Is Growing," JTA, November 29, 2005; Gary Rosenblatt, "U.S. Grad Students Seen Hostile to Israel," Jewish Week, June 17, 2005.

103 Quoted in Tony Judt, "Goodbye to All That?" Nation, January 3, 2005.

104 Anti-Defamation League (ADL), "Attitudes toward Jews, Israel and the Palestinian- Israeli Conflict in Ten European Countries," April 2004; The Pew Global Attitudes Project, A Year After Iraq War: Mistrust of America in Europe Even Higher, Muslim Anger Persists (Washington, DC: The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, March 16, 2004), pp. 4-5, 26. On the ADL survey, see "ADL Survey Finds Some Decrease in Anti-Semitic Attitudes in Ten European Countries," ADL Press Release, April 26, 2004; Shlomo Shamir, "Poll Shows Decrease in Anti-Semitic Views in Europe," Ha’aretz, April 27, 2004. These findings had virtually no effect on pro-Israel pundits, who continued to argue that anti-Semitism was rampant in Europe. See, for example, Daniel J. Goldhagen, "Europe’s Toothless Reply to Anti-Semitism: Conference Fails to Build Tools to Fight a Rising Sickness" Los Angeles Times, April 30, 2004; Charles Krauthammer, "The Real Mideast ‘Poison’," Washington Post, April 30, 2004.

105 Martin Peretz, the editor-in-chief of the New Republic, says, "The headquarters of anti- Semitic Europe today, just as during the Third Republic, is Paris." "Cambridge Diarist: Regrets," New Republic, April 22, 2002, p. 50. The data in this paragraph are from "Anti- Semitism in Europe: Is It Really Rising?" Economist, May 4, 2002.

106 Quoted in Marc Perelman, "Community Head: France No More Antisemitic Than U.S.," Forward, August 1, 2003. Also see Francois Bujon de l’Estang, "A Slander on France," Washington Post, June 22, 2002; "French President Accuses Israel of Conducting Anti-French Campaign," Ha’aretz, May 12, 2002.

107 "French Police: Anti-Semitism in France Sharply Decreased in 2005," Ha’aretz, January 19, 2006.

108 "French Protest for Murdered Jew," BBC News Online, February 26, 2006; Michel Zlotowski, "Large Memorial Held for Parisian Jew," Jerusalem Post, February 23, 2006.

109 Avi Beker, "The Eternally Open Gate," Ha’aretz, January 11, 2005; Josef Joffe, "A Boom, if Not A Renaissance, in Modern-Day Germany," Forward, July 25, 2003; Nathaniel Popper, "Immigrant Policy Eyed as German Community Swells," Forward, July 25, 2003; Eliahu Salpeter, "Jews from the CIS Prefer Germany to the Jewish State," Ha’aretz, May 28, 2005. Also, the Times of London reported in the spring of 2005, that, "An estimated 100,000 Jews have returned to Russia in the past few years, sparking a dramatic renaissance of Jewish life in a country with a long history of anti-Semitism." Jeremy Page, "Once Desperate to Leave, Now Jews Are Returning to Russia, Land of Opportunity," Times, April 28, 2005. Also see Lev Krichevsky, "Poll: Russians Don’t Dislike Jews, and More Are against Anti-Semitism," JTA, February 2, 2006.

110 The chairman of the Education Department of the Jewish Agency recently said that "present day violent anti-Semitism originates from two separate sources: radical Islamists in the Middle East and Western Europe as well as the neo-Nazi youth element in Eastern Europe and Latin America." Jonathan Schneider, "Anti-Semitism Still a World Problem," Jerusalem Post, January 26, 2006.

111 In the ADL’s April 2004 survey, "Attitudes toward Jews, Israel and the Palestinian- Israeli Conflict in Ten European Countries," the following question was asked: "In your opinion, is it very important, somewhat important, somewhat unimportant or not important at all for our government to take a role in combating anti-Semitism in our country?" The percentages for those who strongly agree or somewhat agree were Italy (92), Britain (83), Netherlands (83), France (82), Germany (81), Belgium (81), Denmark (79), Austria (76), Switzerland (74), Spain (73). See p. 19.

112 Phyllis Chesler, The New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do about It (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003); Hillel Halkin, "The Return of Anti-Semitism: To Be against Israel Is to Be against the Jews," Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2002; Barry Kosmin and Paul Iganski, "Judeophobia – Not Your Parent’s Anti-Semitism," Ha’aretz, June 3, 2003; Amnon Rubinstein, "Fighting the New Anti-Semitism," Ha’aretz, December 2, 2003; Gabriel Schoenfeld, The Return of Anti-Semitism (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003); Natan Sharansky, "Anti-Semitism is our Problem," Ha’aretz, August 10, 2003; Yair Sheleg. "A World Cleansed of the Jewish State," Ha’aretz. April 18, 2002; Yair Sheleg, "Enemies, a Post-National Story," Ha’aretz, March 8, 2003. For criticism of this perspective, see Akiva Eldar, "Anti-Semitism Can Be Self-Serving," Ha’aretz, May 3, 2002; Brian Klug, "The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism," Nation, February 2, 2004; Ralph Nader, "Criticizing Israel is Not Anti-Semitism," CounterPunch, October 16/17, 2004; Henri Picciotto and Mitchell Plitnick, eds., Reframing Anti-Semitism: Alternative Jewish Perspectives (Oakland, CA: Jewish Voice for Peace, 2004); and especially Finkelstein, Beyond Chutzpah, chapters 1-3.

113 Helen Nugent, "Chief Rabbi Flays Church over Vote on Israel Assets," Times Online, February 17, 2006. Also see Bill Bowder, "Sacks Seeks Talks after Synod Vote on Disinvestment," Church Times, February 24, 2006; "Bulldozer Motion ‘Based on Ignorance’," in ibid; Ruth Gledhill, "Church Urged to Reconsider Investments with Israel," Times Online, May 28, 2005; Irene Lancaster, "Anglicans Have Betrayed the Jews," Downloaded from Moriel Ministries (UK) website, February 20, 2006; "U.K. Chief Rabbi Attacks Anglicans over Israel Divestment Vote," Ha’aretz, February 17, 2006.

114 That the Church of England was merely criticizing Israeli policy and not engaging in anti-Semitism is clearly reflected in the February 10, 2006 letter that the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Rowan Williams) sent to England’s Chief Rabbi (Jonathan Sacks) explaining the Church’s decision on divestment. For a copy of the letter, see "Archbishop: Synod Call Was Expression of Concern," February 10, 2006, Downloaded from Church of England website, February 20, 2006.

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John J. Mearsheimer is the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service professor of political science and the co-director of the Program on International Security Policy at the University of Chicago, where he has taught since 1982. He graduated from West Point in 1970 and then served five years as an officer in the U.S. Air Force. He then started graduate school in political science at Cornell University in 1975. He received his Ph.D. in 1980.

Stephen M. Walt is Robert and Rene Belfer professor of international affairs at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. He holds a B.A. in international relations from Stanford University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from the University of California, Berkeley. He was previously on the faculties of Princeton University and the University of Chicago.

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